Overhauser effect magnetometers were initially commercialized by GEM in the mid-1980s and have advanced since then through various R&D initiatives. The following papers summarize some of the theory and developments in this area.
Another class of magnetometer (in addition to conventional and Overhauser effect proton precession magnetometers) are those that utilize electron resonance principles.
Commonly called optically pumped magnetometers, these systems utilize alkali metal vapour to generate precessions based on the Zeeman effect.
Potassium alkali methods offer a number of advantages over other alkali methods, including:
The following papers look at some of the specific applications of potassium instruments.